Posts Tagged ‘Dr. Jaquelyn McCandless’

Framework Matters: Study Links for Safe & Effective Crohn’s Strategies

June 5, 2012 8 comments

This post is really a reference guide that includes an outline and framework for thinking about Crohn’s strategies in a differnent way, along with links to a series of studies that go into depth about each area. This is a good place to start research, and a good resource to share with your doctor.

Nothing in biology (nutrition or medicine) makes sense except in the light of evolution. Dr. Loren Cordain

Intestinal Barrier Function & Leaky Gut:

These studies provide the framework for all the rest. Essentially all modern diseases of inflammation can be linked to a series of mismatches between our genes and environmental factors. The origin of this inflammation starts in the gut with a breakdown in intestinal barrier function.

  • The Western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization: Cordain, Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology: 2011 March
  • Mechanisms of disease: the role of intestinal barrier function in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases. Fasano Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Sep
    Zonulin and Its Regulation of Intestinal Barrier Function: The Biological Door to Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Cancer Alessio Fasano Physiol Rev 2011 Jan
  • Leaky Gut and Autoimmune Diseases Fasano Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol 2011 Nov


Below is a simple chart that list the stressors/environmental factors that either increase intestinal permeability directly or damage the balance of the gut flora, all leading to inflammation.

Increasing Intestestinal Permeability





Lectins & Saponins

Low Vitamin D


Sleep Deprivation

Omega 6 Fats



Endurance Exercise






Below is a simple chart that list the environmental factors that either decrease intestinal permeability directly or improve the balance of the gut flora, all leading to reduced inflammation and healing.

Improving Intestestinal Permeability

IBD Diet

Krill Oil

Probiotics & Fermented Food


Proline (Broth & Gelatin)

Curcumin — BCM95

Mutaflor, VSL#3, Lactobacillus paracasei


CLA (Bones & Butter)

Boswellia — 5Loxin

S. Boulardii,  B. Coagulans

Cannaboids (CBD)

D3 & K2

L. Glutamine & Arginine

Sleep, Meditation/Yoga, Acupuncture

IF & HIIT = Growth Hormone



 Fat Balance:

  • Linoleic Acid, a Dietary N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, and the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis – A European Prospective Cohort Study. Gut 2009 July
  • The Type of Dietary Fat Modulates Intestinal Tight Junction Integrity, Gut Permeability, and Hepatic Toll-Like Receptor Expression. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011
  • Conjugated linoleic acid modulates immune responses in patients with Mild to Moderately active Crohn’s disease. Clinical Nutrition 2012 March.
  • Lipid based therapy for ulcerative colitis-modulation of intestinal mucus membrane phospholipids as a tool to influence inflammation. Int J Mol Sci. 2010 Oct
  • Butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by facilitating tight junction assembly via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J Nutr. 2009


Microbiota & Probiotics:

  • Gut Microbiota and Pediatric Disease Dig Dis 2011
  • Association between the use of antibiotics and new diagnoses of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Dec
  • Association of Repeated Exposure to Antibiotics With the Development of Pediatric Crohn’s Disease–A Nationwide, Register-based Finnish Case-Control Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Apr
  • Influence of Saccharomyces boulardii (Florastor) on the intestinal permeability of patients with Crohn’s disease in remission. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of Saccharomyces boulardii mediated by myeloid dendritic cells from patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Dec
  • The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Mutaflor) reduces pathogen invasion and modulates cytokine expression in Caco-2 cells infected with Crohn’s disease-associated E. coli LF82. Trop Med Int Health. 2011 May
  • Probiotic Bacteria Produce Conjugated Linoleic Acid Locally in the Gut That Targets Macrophage PPAR γ to Suppress Colitis. PLoS One. 2012
  • Lactocepin Secreted By Lactobacillus Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects By Selectively Degrading Proinflammatory Chemokines Cell Host & Microbe 2012 April
  • Helminthic therapy: improving mucosal barrier function. Trends Parasitol. 2012 Mar 


  • Vitamin D and gastrointestinal diseases: inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2011 Jan 
  • Curcumin Ameliorates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Epithelial Barrier Disruption. Dig Dis Sci. 2012 March.
  • Therapy of active Crohn disease with Boswellia. Z Gastroenterol. 2001 Jan
  • Dietary supplementation of krill oil attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jan
  • Glutamine and Whey Protein Improve Intestinal Permeability and Morphology in Patients with Crohn’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2011 Oct
  • Combined Glutamine and Arginine Decrease Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Biopsies from Crohn’s Patients J Nutrition 2008
  • Zinc supplementation tightens “leaky gut” in Crohn’s. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2001 May
  • Intestinal immune system influenced by cocoa-enriched diet. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Aug 


  • Therapy with the opioid antagonist naltrexone promotes mucosal healing in active Crohn’s disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci. Smith & Zagon 2011 Jul 


  • Rifaximin-extended intestinal release induces remission in patients with moderately active Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology. 2012 May
  • Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in immune cells as a pathway to immunosuppression. Immunobiology. 2010 Aug
  • Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability British Journal of Pharmacology 2011
  • Linaclotide in the management of gastrointestinal tract disorders. Drugs Today (Barc). 2012 Mar
  • 5-aminosalicylate is not chemoprophylactic for colorectal cancer in IBD: a population based study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Apr
  • Efficacy of 5-aminosalicylates in Crohn’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Apr

Vitamin D and Crohn’s Disease

February 2, 2012 10 comments
Target Vitamin D Levels 25(OH)D
Dr. Jaquelyn McCandless 65 – 90
Robb Wolf 60 – 80 50 – 80 40 – 60
Vitamin D IBD Study 30 – 60

There is alot of talk about Vitamin D and its relationship to autoimmune disease and cancer. It appears that those with these diseases have very low levels of Vitamin D. And although its hard to tell which came first, Vitamin D deficiency or the disease, we know it plays an important role on a number of dimensions.

Genetic ExpressionResearch shows that (NOD2) gene insufficiency contributes to the development of the disease. Vitamin D signalling is a direct inducer of NOD2 expression arguing strongly that vitamin D deficiency plays a causative role in Crohn’s Disease.

Vitamin D plays a critical role in preventing and healing leaky-gut –  maintenance of the epithelial barrier integrity of the large intestine by vitamin D is critical in preventing IBD.  The VDR (vitamin D receptor)  is required for mucosal repair andVDR expression suggesting that Vitamin D is involved in the regulation of epithelial wound healing.

Vitamin D controls Zonulin – the molecule that is the glue of tight junctions in the gut lining. If you are deficient in D, the gates will stay open.

Vitamin D acts as an anti-inflammatory immunomodulator in IBD -Vitamin D downregulated Th1 (acting as a natural TNF-a suppressor) and upregulated Th2 responses (increased IL-4 anti-inflammatory cytokines). Th17 responses – a primary driver of  inflammation – were also downregulated.

Those with IBD are also prone to vitamin D intestinal malabsorption so we know that it is difficult to get enough. And that is the key question? How much Vitamin D is enough to help with healing? There are no clear answers but there are some good guidelines available.

Vitamin D

Test Your Vitamin D 25(OH)D Levels

Just as you would test you blood levels for key inflammation markers like CRP & ESR, you should be testing for Vitamin D or 25(OH)D. And while there is no clear theraputic range to target, the above chart gives some good guidance. Dr. Jaquelyn McCandless is a pioneer in treating Autism using LDN and diet. She also treats patients with IBD and suggests the highest target of 65 – 90. The above chart from Mercola is in agreement with her. Robb Wolf and the Vitamin D Council are pretty close in the 60 – 80 range.

How Much Vitamin D Do You Need?

 How much vitamin D3  (and yes you want D3) you supplement with – to get up to the target levels – depends on your situation. Where do you live? How much time do you spend in the sun? How much damage do you have to your ileum? As a result, everyone has to determine their own dosage based on their actual blood level results. For some that may mean 1,000 iu/day. Others may need 5,000 or 10,000 iu/day. Preliminary studies show that  high-dose Vitamin D3 Improves Clinical Activity in Crohn’s Disease.

What kind should I take?

Vitamin D is best assimilated when it is taken with fat, so the D3 you take should be in either an MCT oil or olive oil base.

I know that I’ve just scratched the surface on Vitamin D here. In addition to the Vitamin D Council and Grass Roots Health, the Vitamin D wiki is also a great resource – for further research. There are also some interesting discussions on other supplements that support vitamin d such as magnesium, zinc and K2. Making sure you get your Vitamin D levels up to theraputic levels does not insure that you’ll be cured (I wish it was that easy), but it’s cheap, safe and easy to do. So don’t wait! Get your blood levels checked and catch some rays!

“Direct and indirect induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the NOD2/CARD15-beta defensin 2 innate pathway defective in Crohn’s disease” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, January, 2010 .

Vitamin D and gastrointestinal diseases: inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancerTheraputic Advances in Gastroenterol,  January, 2011

“US research confirms latitude variation in incidence of chronic digestive diseases.”  American College of Gastroenterology, October, 2011